Theory and History of Ontology

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Annotated Bibliography on the Concept of Truth in Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy


  1. Aenishanslin, Jean-François, O'Meara, Dominic, and Schüssler, Ingeborg, eds. 2004. La Vérité. Antiquité - Modernité. Lausanne: Payot.

  2. Allen, Barry. 1993. Truth in Philosophy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    See in particular Part One. Historical introduction 1. Classical philosophy of truth pp. 9-28 ; 2. Modern truth pp. 29-37, for a brief sketch of the history of theories of truth.

    "I begin with a historical introduction. What I call the classical philosophy of truth is an ensemble of four interdependent ideas in ancient philosophy (Greek and Christian) concerning truth's relation to nature, language, being, and the good. Together they define the historical discourse on truth I call onto-logic. The first principle of onto-logic is that the "logical" possibility of sentential truth-value derives from the "ontological" possibility of beings that "are what they are," that have an identity of their own. For onto-logic, truth is true to such beings; it takes its measure from what is, whose nature truth discloses.

    In Part One, I look at versions of onto-logic first in Greek and Christian sources, then in modern philosophy. But it is not my intention to write the history of Western truth. The historical studies in Part One merely establish some context for the discussion of six philosophers which follows: Nietzsche and William James (Part Two); and Heidegger, Derrida, Wittgenstein, and Foucault (Part Three)."

  3. Annas, Julia E. 1980. "Truth and Knowledge." In Doubt and Dogmatism. Studies in Hellenistic Epistemology, edited by Schofield, Malcolm, Burnyeat, Myles and Barnes, Jonathan, 84-104. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  4. Brague, Rémi, Cassin, Barbara, Laugier, Sandra, Libera, Alain de, Rosier-Catach, Irène, and Sinapi, Michèle. 2004. "Vérité." In Vocabulaire Européen Des Philosophies. Dictionnaire Des Intraduisibles, edited by Cassin, Barbara, 1342-1364. Paris: Le Robert - Seuil.

  5. Campbell, Richard. 1992. Truth and Historicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Contents: 1. Introduction: Our contemporary intellectual predicament 1; 2. Doing philosophy historically 7; 3. Truth as Divine norm 18; 4. Timeless truth 40; 5. Truth and the Divine Intellect 75; 6. Doing the truth 101; 7. Truth and Judgements 120; 8. The forms fracture 145; 9. Truth as the positive reality of ideas 170; 10. Truth and the new way of ideas 203; 11. Truth in a contingent world 222; 12. The emergence of historicity 251; 13. The True as a historical result 269; 14. Individual existence and the appropriation of truth 292; 15. Truth as a social construct 322; 16. Truth and the analysis of logical form 355; 17. The historicity of truth 395: 18. Truth in action 412; Select bibliography 441; Index 449-463.

  6. Colish, Marcia L. 1983. "The Stoic Theory of Verbal Signification and the Problem of Lies and False Statements from Antiquity to St. Anselm." In Archéologie Du Signe, edited by Brind'Amour, Lucie and Vance, Eugène, 17-43. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.

  7. Fleischer, Margot. 1984. Wahrheit Und Wahrheitsgrund. Zum Wahrheitsproblem Und Zu Seiner Geschichte. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  8. Florensky, Pavel Aleksandrovich. 1997. The Pillar and Ground of the Truth. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    See: III. Letter Two: Doubt (on the words for "truth" in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Russian).

  9. Nuchelmans, Gabriel. 1973. Theories of Proposition. Ancient and Medieval Conceptions of the Bearers of Truth and Falsity. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

  10. Pisani, Vittore. 1936. "Parole Indo-Europee Per "Vero" E "Falso"." Rivista Indo-Greco-Italica di Filologia, Lingua, Antichità no. 20:111-112.

  11. Pritzl, Kurt, ed. 2010. Truth. Studies of a Robust Presence. Washington: Catholic University of America Press.

    Contents: Kurt Pritzl: Introduction 1; 1. Kurt Pritzl: Aristotle's Door 15; 2. Mitchell Miller: A More "Exact Grasp" of the Soul? Tripartition in the Republic and Dialectic in the Philebus 40; 3. Timothy Noone: Truth, Creation, and Intelligibility in Anselm, Grosseteste, and Bonaventure 102; 4. Jan A. Aertsen: Truth in the Middle Ages: Its Essence and Power in Christian Thought 127; 5. Daniel Garber, Religion and Science, Faith and Reason: Some Pascalian Reflections 147; 6. Sean Dorrance Kelly: On Time and Truth 168; 7. Daniel O. Dahlstrom: The Prevalence of Truth 185; 8. Brian H. Bix: Will versus Reason: Truth in Natural Law, Positive Law, and Legal Theory 208; 9. Robert E. Wood: Art and Truth: From Plato through Nietzsche to Heidegger 232; 10. John Milbank: Truth and Identity: The Thomistic Telescope 277; 11. Susan Haack, Truth and Progress in the Sciences: An Innocent Realist Perspective 310; Bibliuography 337; Contributors 357; Index 361-368.

  12. Schaerer, René. 1964. " Alétheia. Héritage Antique Et Verité D'aujourd'hui." In Actes Du Xiie Congrés Des Sociétés De Philosophie De Langue Française (Bruxelles Et Louvain 22-24 Août 1964. Thème Principal: La Verité, 87-106. Paris: Béatrice-Nauwelaerts.

    Vol. II

  13. Szaif, Jan, and Enders, Markus, eds. 2006. Die Geschichte Des Philosophischen Begriffs Der Wahrheit. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  14. Williams, Bernard. 2002. Truth and Truthfulness. An Essay in Genealogy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    See: Endnote. The vocabulary of truth: an example pp. 271-278.

  15. Wolenski, Jan. 1994. "Contributions to the History of the Classical Truth-Definition." In Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science Vol. Ix, 481-495. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Uppsala, Sweden, August 7-14, 1991.

    Reprinted in: Jan Wolenski - Essays in the history of logic and logical philosophy - Cracov - Jagiellonian University Press 1999 pp. 139-149.

    "Although truth belongs to the family of crucial philosophical categories, writing its general history still remains a serious challenge for historians of philosophy. Also historical accounts of particular truth-theories are rather fragmentary. Since the classical (also called 'the correspondence') theory of truth has become the most popular and influential among all hitherto proposed answers to the philosophical problem of truth, a lack of its written history is specially strange, more than in the case of their various rivals; this theory maintains, roughly speaking, that truth consists in a relation of correspondence (agreement, adequacy or conformity) which holds between so-called bearers of truth (judgements, ideas, thoughts, propositions, statements or sentences) and reality.

    This paper presents a sketch of how the gap could be filled with respect to the classical concept of truth (CCT for briefly). It is just a sketch which by no means pretends to any completeness. The history of the classical (as well as every other) theory of truth requires taking into account at least four points, namely:

    (A) Statements which have been explicitly intended as definitions (or other explications) of CCT.

    (B) Formulations which could be interpreted as definitions (or rather explications) of CCT independently of the intentions of their authors.

    (C) The philosophical environment of formulations collected under (A) and (B); it is especially important for cases falling under (B).

    (D) Criticism of CCT and its defenses against raised objections.

    I would like to touch each of (A)-(D) but my principal goal is to contribute to (A) and (B)." p. 139 of the reprint.


  1. Barnes, Jonathan. 2007. Truth, Etc. New York: Oxford University Press.

  2. Basset, Louis. 1989. La Syntaxe De L'imaginaire. Étude Des Modes Et Des Négations Dans L'iliade Et L'odyssée. Lyon: Maison de l'Orient.

  3. Boeder, Heribert. 1959. "Der Frühgriechische Wortgebrauch Von Lógos Und Alétheia." Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte.Bausteine zu einem Historischen Wörterbuch der Philosophie no. 4:82-112.

    Reprinted in: Heribert Boeder - Das Bauzeug der Geschichte. Aufsätze un Vorträge zur griechischen und mittelalterlichen Philosophie - (Edited by Gerald Meier) - Würzburg, G. Meier, 1994.

    "Die folgenden Untersuchungen beabsichtigen eine Klärung des Wortgebrauchs von Lógos und Alétheia in den frühgriechischen Sprachwerken - die philosophischen ausgenommen. Gemäß der Eigenart der Zeugnisse und der entsprechenden zeitlichen Verteilung ist die Darstellung in zwei Abschnitte gegliedert, deren erster den Bereich des frühgriechischen Epos behandelt, der andere die Folgezeit bis zur Mitte des fünften Jahrhunderts etwa. Dabei wird das Wort Lógos jeweils vor dein Wort Alétheia erörtert, weil es so der innere Zusammenhang beider nachleget." p. 82

  4. Böhm, Thomas. 2004. "Das Wahrheitsverständnis in Bibel Und Früher Kirche." In La Verité. Antiquité - Modernité, edited by Aenishanslin, Jean-François, O'Meara, Dominic and Schüssler, Ingeborg, 49-64. Lausanne: Payot.

  5. Bultmann, Rudolf. 1928. "Untersuchungen Zum Johannesevangelium." Zeitschrift für die Neutestamentliche Wissenschaft no. 27:113-163.

    Reprinted in: R. Bultmann - Exegetica. Aufsätze zur Erforschung des Neuen Testaments - Tübingen, J. C. B. Mohr P. Siebeck, 1967, pp. 124-173.

    See in particular the section: " Alétheia in der griechischen und hellenistischen Literatur" pp. 134-163 (144-173 of the reprint).

  6. ———. 1964. "Alétheia." In Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Vol. I, edited by Kittel, Gerhard, 232-247. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

    Original German edition 1933.

  7. Cassin, Barbara. 1991. "Les Muses Et La Philosophie. Élements Pour Une Histoire Du Pseudos." In Études Sur Le Sophiste De Platon, edited by Aubenque, Pierre, 291-316. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  8. Cherubin, Rose. 2009. " Aletheia from Poetry into Philosophy. Homer to Parmenides." In Logos and Muthos. Philosophical Essays in Greek Literature, edited by Wians, William, 51-72. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  9. Cole, Thomas. 1983. "Archaic Truth." Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica no. 64:7-28.

  10. Darbo-Peschanski, Catherine. 1987. Le Discours Du Particuler. Essai Sur L'enquête Hérodotéenne. Paris: Seul.

    Préface de Paul Veyne.

    Table: Introduction 11; 1. Le domain de l'enquête. 1. Les dieux, les hommes, l'enquêteur 23; 2. Les limites de l'information 84; 2. La voix de l'enquêteur; 1. L'enquêteur et les autres 107, 2. Les raisonnements 127; 3. Le règne de l'opinion 154; 1. La part de la vérité 165; 2. L'opinion 184; Conclusion 193; Notes 197; Bibliographie 223; Index 239-240.

    Voir en particuler 3.1 La part de la vérité. L' aletheia et les autre façons de dire la vérité pp. 165-183

  11. Denyer, Nicholas. 1991. Language, Thought and Falsehood in Ancient Greek Philosophy. London: Routledge.

  12. Detienne, Marcel. 1960. "La Notion Mythique D' alétheia." Revue des Études Grecques no. 73:27-35.

  13. ———. 1996. The Masters of Truth in Archaic Greece. New York: Zone Books.

    Foreword by Pierre Vidal-Naquet; translated by Janet Lloyd.

    With a new preface to the American edition.

    Original French edition: Les Maîtres de vérité dans la Grèce archaïque - Paris. Maspéro 1967 (reprinted 1981, 1990).

    Translated in Italian as: I maestri di verità nella Grecia arcaica - Bari, Laterza 1983.

  14. ———. 2007. The Greeks and Us. A Comparative Anthropology of Ancient Greece. Boston: Polity.

    See Chapter 4: The wide-open mouth of truth pp. 60-75

  15. DuBois, Page. 1991. Torture and Truth. New York: Routledge.

    Chapter 9: Some Presocratics 93-106; Chapter 10: Plato's Truth 107-122; Chapter 12: Plato and Heidegger 127-140.

    "The truth of the pre-Socratics is not the truth of integrity, of the monumental wholeness of the text of Homer and Plato. In fact, we now know the monumental Homeric corpus to have its own fragmentariness, not the fragmentation of the Analysts, who wanted to discard parts of the received text as interpolations, but a sedimentation, a complicated series of origins, an unevenness due to its oral composition that prevents it from being what was once considered the seamless, intentional production of an "author." So from the beginning, as we approach the pre-Socratics' work, their aphorisms, bits and pieces recorded in later philosophers, traces of their reputation shaping even in their absence the work of others, we cannot yet-perhaps we can never- achieve a sense of coherence, of systematic development of philosophical ideas, such as is perhaps possible with the works of Kant or Hegel.

    I want to approach the notion of truth in the pre-Socratics fragmentarily, then, by looking at truth in the fragmentary remains of the work of Herakleitos and Parmenides, two radically different thinkers. I have not attempted here to present an encyclopedic survey of all occurrences of alêtheia in Homer, Hesiod, all the pre-Socratics. Rather, I want to give a sense of a cultural paradigm, of the ways in which the word alêtheia works within a semantic field, in its contrasts, for example, with other words for truth, and as it fits into a cultural and social field of seeking out the genuine, the true. Herakleitos seems to offer a suggestive and idiosyncratic notion of truth that has certain affinities with the dialogical practices of the later democracy, while Parmenides' sense of truth is more compatible with the traditions of epic and of the consultation of oracles." p. 96

    "Plato returns to the pre-classical notion of the basanos as a proof of loyalty and truth; but even more importantly, he presents both a paradigm of truth as recollection, the recalling of time -- buried truth -- and a paradigm of the production of truth through the elegkhos, the philosophical conversation, a version of truth as dialectic, as process, as the making of a truth in time, between people, not as the revelation of something lost in the past but as the production of something in the present. This latter element seems to me the trace of the democratic in Plato, a trace that may be represented only to be disavowed within the larger corpus of Plato's arguments." p. 107

  16. Dumitriu, Anton. 1990. "Essai Sur L'idée De Vérité Dans La Grèce Antique." In Actualité De La Philosophie, 149-166. Paris: Nouvelles Éditions Latines.

    Actes du Congrès, 13-14 octobre 1989

  17. Finkelberg, Margalit. 1998. The Birth of Literary Fiction in Ancient Greece. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    See Chapter V: ' Lies resembing truth' pp. 131-160.

  18. Fiorentino, Fernando. 2002. Il Problema Della Verità Nei Filosofi Antichi. Napoli: Editrice Domenicana italiana.

  19. ———. 2004. "Il Problema Della Verità in Plotino." Sapienza no. 57:145-184.

  20. Fladerer, Ludwig. 2006. "Der Wahrheitsbegriff Im Griechischen Neuplatonismus." In Die Geschichte Des Philosophischen Begriffs Der Wahrheit, edited by Szaif, Jan and Enders, Markus, 33-48. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  21. Frisk, Hjalmar. 1936. "Wahrheit" Und "Lüge" in Den Indogermanischen Sprachen. Einige Morphologische Beobachtungen. Göteborg: Wettergren & Kerbers Förlag.

    With an Appendix: "Anhang: die Wörter für 'Lüge' und 'Wahrheit' in den Dard- und Kafirsprachen" (p. 35-38) by Georg Morgenstierne.

    Reprinted in: Hjalmar Frisk - Kleine Schriften zur Indogermanistik und zur griechischen Wortkunde - Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell, 1966 pp. 1-35.

  22. Galluzzo, Gabriele. 1999. "Il Tema Della Verità in Plotino, Fonti Platoniche E Presupposti Filosofici." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 10:59-88.

  23. Heitsch, Ernst. 1962. "Die Nicht Philosophische Alétheia." Hermes no. 90:24-33.

  24. ———. 1963. "Wahrheit Als Erinnerung." Hermes no. 91:36-53.

  25. ———. 1966. "Das Wissen Des Xenophanes." Rheinisches Museum für Philologie no. 109:193-235.

    Contains a brief history of alétheia from Hesiod to Parmenides

  26. ———. 1979. "Der Ort Der Wahrheit. Aus Der Frühgeschichte Der Wahrheitsbegriffs." In Parmenides Und Die Anfänge Der Erkenntniskritik Und Logik, 33-69. Donauwörth: Ludwig Auer.

    Reprinted in: Ernst Heitsch - Gesammelte Schriften - vol. II. Zur griechischen Philosophie - München / Leipzig - K. G. Saur, 2001 pp. 89-116

  27. Hoffmann, Philippe. 2000. "La Triade Chaldaïque E ros, Aletheia, Pistis: De Proclus À Simplicius." In Proclus Et La Théologie Platonicienne, edited by Segonds, Alain-Philippe and Steel, Carlos, 459-489. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

    Actes du colloque international de Louvain (13-16 mai 1998) en l'honneur de H. D. Saffrey et L. G. Westerink

  28. Hommel, Hildebrecht. 1969. "Wahrheit Und Gerechtigkeit. Zur Geschichte Und Deutung Eines Begriffspaares." Antike un Abendland.Beiträge zum Verständnis der Griechen und Römer und ihres Nachlebens no. 15:159-186.

  29. Jens, Walter. 1951. "Das Begreifen Des Wahrheit Im Frühen Griechentum." Studium Generale no. 4:240-246.

  30. Käetzler, Joachim. 1959. Pseudos, Dolos, Mechanema in Der Griechischen Tragödie, Tübingen.

    Unpublished PH. D. dissertation.

  31. Kahn, Charles H. 1973. The Verb 'Be' in Ancient Greek. Dordrecht: Reidel.

    Volume 6 of: John W. M. Verhaar (ed.) - The verb 'be' and its synonyms: philosophical and grammatical studies - Dordrecht, Reidel

    Reprinted by Hackett Publishing, 2003 with new introduction and discussion of relation between predicative and existential uses of the Greek verb einai.

  32. ———. 2004. "A Return to the Theory of the Verb Be and the Concept of Being." Ancient Philosophy no. 24:381-405.

  33. Krischer, Tilman. 1965. " Etymos Und Aléthes." Philologus no. 109:161-174.

  34. Kurz, Dietrich. 1970. Akribeia. Das Ideal Der Exaktheit Bei Den Griechen Bis Aristoteles. Göppingen: A. Kümmerle.

  35. Ledbetter, Grace M. 2003. Poetics before Plato. Interpretation and Authority in Early Greek Theories of Poetry. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  36. Lee, Mi-Kyoung. 2005. Epistemology after Protagoras. Responses to Relativism in Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Chapter 2: Protagora's Aletheia - pp. 8-29.

  37. Levet, Jean-Pierre. 1976. Le Vrai Et Le Faux Dans La Pensée Grecque Archaïque. Étude De Vocabulaire. Paris: Belles Lettres.

    Tome I. Présentation générale. Le vrai et le faux dans les épopées homériques.

    "Ce livre est la première partie d'une thèse de doctorat d'État qui a été sutenue le 11 mai 1974 en Sorbonne" (Avant-propos).

  38. ———. 2003. "L'expression Du Vrai Et De La Vérité Dans Les Posthomerica De Quintus De Smyrne." In Des Géants À Dionysos. Mélanges Offerts À Francis Vian, edited by Accorinti, Domenico and Chuvin, Pierre, 357-384. Alessandria: Edizioni dell'Orso.

  39. ———. 2008. Le Vrai Et Le Faux Dans La Pensée Grecque Archaique D'Hésiode À La Fin Du Ve Siècle. Paris: Belles Lettres.

    "Ce livre forme un ensemble avec la première partie d'une thèse de doctorat d'État soutenue à la Sorbonne en 1974 et parue en 1976." (Avant-Propos).

    "L'analyse lexicale de la conception et de l'expression du vrai et du faux fait apparaître, dans l 'Iliade et dans l' Odyssée, l'existence d'un système ancien, qui repose sur des énoncés subjectifs se révélant conformes au réel objectif (familles d' etéos, etmos,et etétumos, d'atrekéos et de ypertés) ou procédant de l'invention de pures fictions ( pseudos, pseudomai).

    Indépendamment de lui, l' alethein ancienne correspond à une révélation véridique prenant la forme d'un non-voilé-dévoilant.

    Avec des prodromes déjà perceptibles chez Homère, la mutation de la psychologie de la connaissance tend progressivement à conduire à voir dans la vérité, dont le faux devient une déformation, le réel objectif connu, convenablement interprété par l'intelligence et fidèlement transmis.

    Les catégories du faux et du vrai qui apparaissent alors relèvent dans le lexique de pseudos et d' aletheia, le terme, compatible, dès l'origine, avec la démarche décrite (un contenu objectif est communiqué), étant pourvu de nouvelles valeurs sémantiques. L'évolution est lente et considérable. Elle se fait par une série d'étapes successives.

    D'Hésiode au Ve siècle, traits anciens et caractères nouveaux coexistent, mais petit à petit ceux-ci éliminent ceux-là. Un équilibre relatif est encore perceptible chez Hésiode, mais rapidement notions et mots archaïques s'effacent au profit de ce que représentent alethés et aletheia, pseudos et pseudomai, ainsi que les termes qui leur sont apparentés, tandis que se développent parallélement des concepts et des vocables nouveaux. Ils entrent dans les structures évoluées de la cognition et de la communication du vrai et du faux telles que alethés et aletheia, pseudos et pseudomai en montrent l'existence et la nature.

    C'est l'histoire de cette évolution majeure, considérée comme formant un ensemble cohérent, que décrit le présent livre, dans la continuité de l'apport homérique, sur le fondement d'une étude sémantique menée à partir d'une analyse des textes littéraires, rédigés en vers ou non, d'Hésiode à la fin de l'âge archaique et avant la grande floraison de la prose classique.

    Le critère permettant d'opposer archaique et classique est celui que fournit, au moins en ce qui concerne l'attique, la disparition de l'usage vivant des concepts les plus anciens et de leurs supports linguistiques." (Présentation Générale).

  40. Lotz, Johannes B. 1960. "Aletheia Und Orthotes. Versuch Einer Deutung Im Lichte Der Scholastik." Philosophische Jahrbuch no. 68:258-268.

    Reprinted in: Johannes B. Lotz - Sein und Existenz. Kritische Studien in systematischer Absicht - Freiburg, Herder, 1965, pp. 120-134

  41. Luther, Wilhelm. 1935. "Wahrheit" Und "Lüge" Im Ältesten Griechentum. Leipzig: Verlag Robert Noske.

  42. ———. 1954. Weltansicht Und Gestesleben. Versuch Einer Wissenschaftlichen Grundlegung Der Philosophischen Sprachanalyse an Beispielen Aus Der Griechischen Geistesgeschichte Von Homer Bis Aristoteles. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

  43. ———. 1958. "Der Frühgriechische Wahrheitsgedanke Im Lichte Der Sprachen." Gymnasium no. 65:75-107.

  44. ———. 1966. "Wahrheit, Licht Und Erkenntnis in Der Griechischen Philosophie Bis Demokrit. Ein Beitrag Zur Erforschung Des Zusammenhangs Von Sprache Und Philosophischen Denken." Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte.Bausteine zu einem Historischen Wörterbuch der Philosophie no. 10:1-240.

  45. Marincola, John. 2007. "Alétheia." In Lexicon Historiographicum Graecum Et Latinum (Lhg&L), edited by Porciani, Leone, 7-29. Pisa: Edizioni della Normale.

    Fascicle II.

  46. Martínez, Marzoa Felipe. 1974. "Einai, Physis, Logos. Aletheia." Emerita no. 42:159-175.

  47. Matthen, Mohan. 1983. "Greek Ontology and the 'Is' of Truth." Phronesis no. 28:113-135.

  48. Mette, Hans Joachim. 1955. " Alethein, Alethes." In Lexicon Des Frühgriechischen Epos. Vol. I, edited by Snell, Bruno, 476-477. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

  49. Mielert, Ernest. 1958. Ausdrücke Für Wahrheit Und Lüge in Der Attischen Tragödie. München: Otto Brunn.

  50. Nagy, Gregory. 1990. "The Crisis of Performance." In The Ends of Rhetoric: History, Theory, Practice, edited by Bender, John B. and Wellbery, David E., 43-59. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    On Alethéia see pp. 47-53.

  51. Perceau, Sylvie. 2002. La Parole Vive. Communiquer En Catalogue Dans L'épopée Homérique. Louvain: Peeters.

    Voir le Chapitre III. Une éthique et une approche du monde § 2.3 Katalegein et alétheia pp. 279-287

  52. Pratt, Louise H. 1993. Lying and Poetry from Homer to Pindar. Falsehood and Deception in Archaic Greek Poetics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

  53. Prier, Raymond Adolph. 1989. Thauma Idesthai. The Phenomenology of Sight and Appearance in Archaic Greek. Tallahassee: The Florida State University Press.

    "This work is a study of the archaic phenomenology of Homer. Particular attention is paid to linguistic and stylistic characteristics of signification. Comparisons are made between Homeric and Aristotelian thought.

    Also the author critically examines contemporary readings of Homer including those of Heidegger, Foucault, and Derrida."

  54. Puelma, Mario. 1989. "Der Dichter Und Die Wahrheit in Der Griechischen Poetik Von Homer Bis Aristoteles." Museum Helveticum no. 46:65-100.

  55. Ruggenini, Mario. 2001. "Veritas E Aletheia. La Grecia, Roma E L'origine Della Metafisica Cristiano-Medioevale." Quaestio.The Yearbook of the History of Metaphysics no. 1:83-212.

  56. Santos, José Trinidade. 2004. "El Nacimiento De La Verdad." Méthexis no. 17:7-23.

    "This paper aims to outline the course of 'truth' in Plato's and Aristotle's works, where it begins as the veridical reading of einai, and ends as a function of logos. In Plato's Socratic dialogues truth has no methodological implications. The dialogues on the theory of forms sustain the polysemy of being, using truth as a means of establishing the consistency of arguments Phaedo 100a). The difficult coexistence of truth with infallibility ( Theaetetus 152a-179c) leads to its emergence as a poion of logos ( Sophist 263b). Aristotle's De interpretatione 1-6 points to a correspondence theory of truth, showing that only by affirming or denying logos is true or false."

  57. Scalera McClintock, Giuliana. 1990. " Alétheia Nel Pensiero Orfico. Ii. Alétheia Nelle Tavolette Di Olbia Pontica." Filosofia e Teologia no. 4:78-83.

    "II. In the context of the Bacchic mysteries, the bone tablets from Pontic Olbia open up space for theological meditation, documenting with direct sources from the mid-fifth century B.C. the belief in immortality seen darkly in the mania, the disembodiment of the concept of the soul, and an idea of truth so strong that it cannot be attributed only to a religion which defines itself in respect to others. Thus a new tessera can be added to the comprehension of the relation between Orphic thought and the initiation rites in which the first philosophy takes root."

  58. Segal, Charles. 1986. "Naming. Truth, and Creation in the Poetics of Pindar." Diacritics no. 16:65-83.

    Reprinted in: C. Segal - Aglaia. The poetry of Alcman, Sappho, Pindar, Bacchylides, and Corinna - Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield, 1998, as Chapter 6 pp. 105-132

  59. Simondon, Michèle. 1982. La Mémoire Et L'oubli Dans La Pensée Grecque Jusqu'à La Fin Du 5. Siècle Avant J.-C. Psychologie Archaïque, Mythes Et Doctrines. Paris: Belles Lettres.

  60. Siorvanes, Lucas. 2000. "The Problem of Truth in the Platonic Theology." In Proclus Et La Théologie Platonicienne, edited by Segonds, Alain-Philippe and Steel, Carlos, 47-63. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

    Actes du colloque international de Louvain (13-16 mai 1998) en l'honneur de H. D. Saffrey et L. G. Westerink

  61. Snell, Bruno. 1975. "Aletheia." Würzburger Jahrbucher für die Altertumswissenschaft no. 1:9-17.

    Festschrift Ernst Siegmann

  62. ———. 1978. Der Weg Zum Denker Und Zur Wahrheit. Studien Zur Frühgriechischen Sprache. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

    Chapter 5: "Der Entwicklung des Wahrheitsbegriffe bei den Griechen" pp. 91-104.

    Translated in Italian as: Il Cammino del pensiero e della verità: studi sul linguaggio greco delle origini - Ferrara, Gallio Editori 1991 pp. 105-120.

  63. Spicq, Ceslas. 1994. "Alétheia." In Theological Lexicon of the New Testament, 1-67. Peabody: Endrickson.

    Translated and edited by James D. Ernest from: Notes de lexicographie neo-testamentaire. Vol. III: Supplément, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1982, pp. 16-37.

  64. Starr, Chester G. 1968. "Ideas of Truth in Early Greece." La Parola del Passato no. 23:348-359.

    Reprinted in: C. G. Starr, Essays on Ancient History. A Selection of Articles and Reviews, Edited by Arther Ferrill and Thomas Kelly, Leiden: Brill, 1979, pp. 163-174.

    "In the modern world truth is a fundamental intellectual and moral virtue. Courts of law demand, in a famous phrase, the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; statesmen must appear to be devoted to the truth; scholarly work is judged first on its truth and only thereafter for other qualities. The historian, for example, seeks to say true things, and hopes to guarantee the reputation of his work by amassing verified, precise detail, the hallmark of which is the learned footnote.

    Recently I have been investigating the origins of this attitude along with other aspects of the incipient historical spirit, during the archaic period of Greek history (700-500 B.C.). (1) To my surprise there seems to have been only limited consideration of what the Greeks in this era generally meant by truth '. Correspondingly, the fact that their ideas of truth often differed markedly from modern concepts has not been stressed, even though early Greek views on the matter had a lasting influence not only on ancient historiography but also on classical thought. The following remarks are intended as a sketch of the evidence which may hopefully encourage more intensive discussion; my intent, let me be clear, is to suggest how varied were the meanings of truth at the time, not to analyze their relations to modern epistemological theories.

    A cynic, indeed, might argue that here as elsewhere, the Greeks were simply more honest; for truth only slowly became a conscious, abstract virtue in Greek civilization, and never gained that unquestioned priority which we theoretically assign to it today. While Homer assessed the reality of events and distinguished' true statements from prevarications, the words which he and other early Greeks used to express these ideas initially lacked the absolute quality implicit in the modern truth ' and lie '. In time the verbal distinctions became theoretical and general; otherwise history and philosophy could scarcely have emerged. Yet thinkers had a cankering fear that only the gods could really know the truth, and rarely felt passionately the need for truth.

    By 400 B.C. - the boundary of this essay - two modes of establishing verity, the speculative and the empirical, had emerged, but so. too had conscious intellectual scepticism; only thereafter did epistemological analysis begin to develop. Perhaps even more devastating in its effects, as regards the mastery of the ideal of truth, was the emphasis upon form as a mode of evaluating the truth of a work."

    (1) Chester G. Starr, The Awakening of the Greek Historical Spirit (New York, 1968).

  65. Storz, Gerhard. 1922. Gebrauch Und Bedeutungsentwicklung Vonvon Alétheia Und Begriffsverwandten Wörten in Der Griechischen Literatur Von Platon. Tübingen.

    Ph.D. Dissertation

  66. Striker, Gisela. 1996. " Kriterion Tes Aletheias." In Essays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics, 22-76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Originally published in German: Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften zur Göttingen, I. Philosophische-historische Klasse, 2,1974 pp. 48-110.

  67. Szaif, Jan. 2006. "Die Geschichte Des Wahrheitsbegriffs in Der Klassischen Antike." In Die Geschichte Des Philosophischen Begriffs Der Wahrheit, edited by Szaif, Jan and Enders, Markus, 1-32. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  68. Thiselton, Anthony C. 1978. "Truth." In The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Vol. Iii, edited by Brown, Colin, 874-902. Exeter: Paternoster Press.

  69. ———. 2006. "Does Lexicographical Research Yield "Hebrew" and "Greek" Concepts of Truth? (1978) and How Does This Research Relate to Notions of Truth Today? (New Summary)." In Thiselton on Hermeneutics. Collected Works with New Essays, 267-286. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

    "Although this was originally written as a dictionary article, this work is neither merely didactic nor merely a lexicographical survey. With the editor's agreement it entirely replaced the German- language article that it was first designed only to supplement, The article in the German edition had presupposed the dichotomy between "Hebrew" and "Greek" concepts of truth in ways that were open to question in the light of both semantic theory (not least in the work of James Barr), and actual lexicographical research, which invited fresh evaluation. The inclusion of the classical and Old Testament backgrounds makes the fallacies of the older approach clearer. (...)

    The article, comes from Colin Brown (ed.), The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, volume 3 (Exeter Paternoster Press, 1978), pp. 874-902, but has been abbreviated in order to omit material that may not bear directly on the argument. The breadth of lexicographical data might seem at times to verge on the tedious, but the argument depends on covering a fair range of specific cases and evidence, The original article concluded with a substantial discussion of modern philosophical theories of truth. This is too lengthy to retain here, but a brief summary has been rewritten for this volume (2004) to demonstrate the role of the argument for the "second horizon" of hermeneutics."

  70. Tortorelli Ghidini, Marisa. 1990. " Alétheia Nel Pensiero Orfico. I. "Dire La Verità": Sul V. 7 Della Laminetta Di Farsalo." Filosofia e Teologia no. 4:73-77.

    "I. The Homeric formula 'to tell the truth' involves the idea of starting from beginning and proceeding, point by point, to the end. In the Orphic Pharsalos tablet, that epic formula occurs again but the meaning turns out to be completely modified. According to this religious context 'telling the truth' and 'drinking at the spring of Mnemosyne' are identical: the truth, associated with a cosmic Memory, becomes a fundamental religious virtue. The link between religious and logical truth arises here."

  71. Wolenski, Jan. 2005. " Aletheia in Greek Thought until Aristotle." Annals of Pure and Applied Logic no. 127:339-360.

    "This paper investigates the concept of aletheia (truth) in ancient philosophy from the pre-Socratics until Aristotle. The meaning of aletheia in archaic Greek is taken as the starting point. It is followed by remarks about the concept of truth in the Seven Sages. The author discusses this concept as it appears in views and works of philosophers and historians. A special section is devoted to the epistemological and ontological understanding of truth. On this occasion, influential views of Heidegger are examined. The paper is concluded by a review of various meanings of truth in Aristotle."

  72. Yialoucas, Costantinos Savva. 1990. The Conflict of Doxa and Aletheia in Euripides and His Predecessors. Nicosia - Cyprus: The Cyprus Association of Greek Philologists "Stasinos".